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Humans (Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina. Together with chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans, they are part of the family Hominidae (the great apes, or hominids). Terrestrial animals, humans are characterized by their erect posture and bipedal locomotion; high manual dexterity and heavy tool use compared to other animals; open-ended and complex language use compared to other animal communications; larger, more complex brains than other animals; and highly advanced and organized societies.Early hominins—particularly the australopithecines, whose brains and anatomy are in many ways more similar to ancestral non-human apes—are less often referred to as "human" than hominins of the genus Homo. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia, and the lineage that gave rise to Homo sapiens is thought to have diverged in Africa around 500,000 years ago, with the earliest fossil evidence of early Homo sapiens appearing (also in Africa) around 300,000 years ago. The oldest early H. sapiens fossils were found in Jebel Irhoud, Morocco dating to about 315,000 years ago. As of 2017, the oldest known skeleton of an anatomically modern Homo sapiens is the Omo-Kibish I, which dates to about 196,000 years ago. It was discovered in southern Ethiopia in 1967. Humans began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity at least by about 100,000–70,000 years ago and (according to recent evidence) as far back as around 300,000 years ago, in the Middle Stone Age, with some features of behavioral modernity possibly beginning earlier, and possibly in parallel with evolutionary brain globularization in H. sapiens. In several waves of migration, H. sapiens ventured out of Africa and populated most of the world.The spread of the large and increasing population of humans has profoundly affected much of the biosphere and millions of species worldwide. Advantages that explain this evolutionary success include a larger brain with a well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable advanced abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, sociality, and culture through social learning.
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