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In psychology, temperament broadly refers to consistent individual differences in behavior that are biologically based and are relatively independent of learning, system of values and attitudes. Some researchers point to association of temperament with formal dynamical features of behavior, such as energetic aspects, plasticity, sensitivity to specific reinforcers and emotionality. Temperament traits (such as Neuroticism, Sociability, Impulsivity, etc.) remain its distinct patterns in behavior throughout adulthood but they are most noticeable and most studied in children. Babies are typically described by temperament, but longitudinal research in the 1920s began to establish temperament as something which is stable across the lifespan.Although a broad definition of temperament is agreed upon, many classification schemes for temperament have been developed, and there is no consensus.Historically, the concept of temperament (originally "temperamentums" in Latin means "mixtures") was a part of the theory of the four humors, with their corresponding four temperaments. This historical concept was explored by philosophers, psychologists, psychiatrists and psycho-physiologists from very early times of psychological science, with theories proposed by Immanuel Kant, Hermann Lotze, Ivan Pavlov, Carl Jung, Gerardus Heymans among others. More recently, scientists seeking evidence of a biological basis of personality have further examined the relationship between temperament and neurotransmitter systems and character (defined in this context as developmental aspects of personality). However, biological correlations have proven hard to confirm. Temperament is determined through specific behavioral profiles, usually focusing on those that are both easily measurable and testable early in childhood. Commonly tested factors include traits related to energetic capacities (named as "Activity", "Endurance", "Extraversion"), traits related to emotionality (such as irritability, frequency of smiling), and approach or avoidance of unfamiliar events. There is generally a low correlation between descriptions by teachers and behavioral observations by scientists of features used in determining temperament.
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