floral design - choose a jigsaw puzzle to solve

Floral formula is a means to represent the structure of a flower using numbers, letters and various symbols, presenting substantial information about the flower in a compact form. It can represent particular species, or can be generalized to characterize higher taxa, usually giving ranges of organ numbers. Floral formulae are one of the two ways of describing flower structure developed during the 19th century, the other being floral diagrams. The format of floral formulae differs between authors, yet they tend to convey the same information. Floral formulae were developed at the beginning of the 19th century. The first authors using them were Cassel (1820) and Martius (1828). Grisebach (1854) used them in his textbook to describe characteristics of floral families, stating numbers of different organs separated by commas and highlighting fusion. Sachs (1873) used them together with floral diagrams, he noted their advantage of being composed of "ordinary typeface". Although Eichler widely used floral diagrams in his Blüthendiagramme, he used floral formulae sparingly, mainly for families with simple flowers. Sattler's Organogenesis of Flowers (1973) takes advantage of floral formulae and diagrams to describe the ontogeny of 50 plant species.