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The Latin Church, also known as the Western Church or the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest particular church sui iuris of the Catholic Church, employing the Latin liturgical rites. It is one of 24 such churches, the 23 others forming the Eastern Catholic Churches. It is headed by the bishop of Rome, the pope – traditionally also called the patriarch of the West – with his cathedra in this role at the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran in Rome, Italy. The Latin Church traces its history to the earliest days of Christianity through its direct leadership under the Holy See, founded by Peter and Paul, according to Catholic tradition. The Catholic Church teaches that its bishops are the successors of Jesus' apostles, and that the pope is the successor to Saint Peter upon whom primacy was conferred by Jesus Christ. Of Jesus' twelve apostles, four are associated with apostolic sees of the Western Church: 1) Peter founded Rome (together with Paul) and Syracuse, 2) Paul also founded Malta, 3) Barnabas founded Milan, and 4) James, son of Zebedee founded Santiago de Compostela. Substantial distinguishing theological emphases, liturgical traditions, features and identity of Latin Catholicism, on the other hand, can be traced back to the Latin church fathers whereof most importantly the Latin Doctors of the Church, from the 2nd–7th centuries, including in the Early African church. After the East-West schism in 1054 in the Middle Ages its members became known as Latins in contrast with Eastern Christians. Following the Islamic conquests, the Crusades were launched from 1095 to 1291 in order to defend Christians and their properties in the Holy Land against persecution. The Latin Patriarchate of Jerusalem was established in 1099 for their care, remaining until this day.