A calendar is a system of organizing days for social , religious, commercial or administrative purposes. This is done by giving names to periods of time , typically days, weeks, months and years. A date is the designation of a single, specific day within such a system . A calendar is also a physical record (often paper ) of such a system . A calendar can also mean a list of planned events, such as a courtcalendar or a partly or fully chronological list of documents, such as a calendar of wills.
Periods in a calendar (such as years and months) are usually, though not necessarily, synchronised with the cycle of the sun or the moon . The most common type of pre-modern calendar was the lunisolar calendar, a lunar calendar that occasionally adds one intercalary month to remain synchronised with the solar year over the long term.
The term calendar is taken from calendae, the term for the first day of the month in the Roman calendar, related to the verb calare "to call out", referring to the "calling" of the new moon when it was first seen. Latin calendarium meant "account book , register" (as accounts were settled and debts were collected on the calends of each month ). The Latin term was adopted in Old French as calendier and from there in Middle English as calender by the 13th century (the spelling calendar is early modern).