Rosa × centifolia (lit. hundred leaved/petaled rose; syn. R. gallica var. centifolia (L.) Regel), the Provence rose or cabbage rose or Rose de Mai is a hybrid rose developed by Dutch rose breeders in the period between the 17th century and the 19th century, possibly earlier. Its parentage includes Rosa × damascena, but it may be a complex hybrid; its exact hereditary history is not well documented or fully investigated, but it now appears that this is not the "hundred-leaved" (centifolia) rose mentioned by Theophrastus and Pliny: "no unmistakable reference can be traced earlier than about 1580". The original plant was sterile, but a sport with single flowers appeared in 1769, from which various cultivars known as centifolia roses were developed, many of which are further hybrids. Other cultivars have appeared as further sports from these roses. Rosa × centifolia 'Muscosa' is a sport with a thick covering of resinous hairs on the flower buds, from which most (but not all) "moss roses" are derived. Dwarf or miniature sports have been known for almost as long as the larger forms, including a miniature moss ross 'Moss de Meaux'.
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