Legnica [lɛɡˈɲit͡sa] ( listen) (archaic Polish: Lignica, German: Liegnitz, Czech: Lehnice, Latin: Lignitium) is a city in southwestern Poland, in the central part of Lower Silesia, on the Kaczawa River (left tributary of the Oder) and the Czarna Woda. Between 1 June 1975 and 31 December 1998 Legnica was the capital of the Legnica Voivodeship. It is currently the seat of the county and since 1992 the city has been the seat of a Diocese. As of 2012, Legnica had a population of 102,708 inhabitants. The city was first referenced in chronicles dating from the year 1004, although previous settlements could be traced back to the 7th century. The name "Legnica" was mentioned in 1149 under High Duke of Poland Bolesław IV the Curly. Legnica was most likely the seat of Bolesław and it became the residence of the High Dukes that ruled the Duchy of Legnica from 1248 until 1675, when it was inherited by the Habsburgs after the death of George William of Silesia. Legnica became renowned for the fierce battle that took place at Legnickie Pole near the city on 9 April 1241 during the Mongol invasion of Europe. The Christian coalition under the command of the Polish Duke Henry II the Pious, supported by nobles, knights, and mercenaries, was decisively defeated by the Mongols. This, however, was a turning point in the war as the Mongols, having killed Henry II, halted their advance into Europe and retreated to Hungary through Moravia.
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