The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz: Кыргыз Республикасы, translit. Kyrgyz Respublikasy; Russian: Кыргызская Республика, tr. Kyrgyzskaya Respublika), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, translit. Kyrgyzstan [qɯrʁɯsˈstɑn]; Russian: Киргизия, tr. Kirgiziya [kʲɪrˈɡʲizʲɪjə]), is a sovereign state in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain. It is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its highly mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes.
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