Kösem Sultan (Ottoman Turkish: كوسم سلطان, IPA: [cøˈsem sulˈtan]) (c. 1589 – 2 September 1651) – also known as Mahpeyker Sultan (Turkish pronunciation: [mahpejˈkeɾ sulˈtan]; Māh-peyker) – was one of the most powerful women in Ottoman history. Kösem achieved power and influenced the politics of the Ottoman Empire when she became Haseki Sultan as favourite consort and later legal wife of Ottoman Sultan Ahmed I (r. 1603–1617) and Valide Sultan as mother of Murad IV (r. 1623–1640) and Ibrahim (r. 1640–1648), and grandmother of Mehmed IV (r. 1648–1687). She was one of the prominent figures during the Sultanate of Women. Kösem lived in the Ottoman Empire as a courtier during the reign of six sultans: Ahmed I, Mustafa I, Osman II, Murad IV, Ibrahim, and Mehmed IV. After her death, she was known by the names "Valide-i Muazzama" (magnificent mother), "Vālide-i Maḳtūle" (murdered mother), and "Vālide-i Șehīde" (martyred mother).
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