Aerobic vaginitis (AV) is a form of vaginitis first described by Donders et al. in 2002. It is characterized by a more or less severe disruption of the lactobacillary flora, along with inflammation, atrophy, and the presence of a predominantly aerobic microflora, composed of enteric commensals or pathogens. It can be considered the aerobic counterpart of bacterial vaginosis. The lack of acknowledgement of the difference between the two conditions might have led to inaccurate conclusions in several studies in the past. The entity that has been described as "desquamative inflammatory vaginitis" probably corresponds to the more severe forms of aerobic vaginitis.
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