997 is the internal designation for the Porsche 911 sports car manufactured and sold by German manufacturer Porsche between 2004 (as Model Year 2005) and 2012. Production of the Carrera and Carrera S coupés began in early 2004, all-wheel drive Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S versions began shipping in November 2005, Turbo and GT3 derivatives went on sale in late 2006 and the 911 GT2 in 2007. In addition to the coupé and cabriolet versions, Targa versions of the Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S were also available, which carry on with the "glass canopy" roof design used on all Targa 911s from the Type 993 Generation 911 until the 991, which replaced it in 2012. The 997 was an evolution of the preceding 996, with the most significant changes being interior and exterior styling. Larger 18 inch wheels were fitted as standard, and other engineering changes include slightly increased power; however, the car is technically very similar to its predecessor. A new S version was offered, with additional power from a slightly larger engine, sports suspension, and sports exhaust. During 2009 Porsche updated the 997 line-up including styling changes, a revised engine with direct injection and the introduction of the company's new "PDK" dual clutch transmission. As a result, the updated 997 models were faster, lighter and more fuel efficient than the outgoing versions, with improved handling. In the case of the 997 Turbo, a comprehensively re-tuned all wheel drive system with an optional "torque vectoring" system was also a part of the upgrades package; in an October 2009 preliminary review, Car and Driver magazine estimated that when equipped with the PDK transmission, the updated Turbo should be capable of accelerating from 0-60 mph (97 km/h) in three seconds. The 997 is the most commercially successful 911 of all time, having sold 100,000 units of the first phase alone between its introduction in 2005 and July 2007.
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