The 1850s was a decade that ran from January 1, 1850, to December 31, 1859. The 1850s was a very turbulent decade, as wars such as the Crimean War, shifted and shook European politics, as well as the expansion of colonization towards the Far East, which also sparked conflicts like the Second Opium War. At the mean time, The United States saw its peak on mass migration to the American West, that particularly made the nation experience an economic boom, as well as a rapidly increasing population. Crimean War (1854–56) fought between Imperial Russia and an alliance consisting of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, the Second French Empire, the Kingdom of Sardinia and the Ottoman Empire. The majority of the conflict takes place around Crimea, on the northern coasts of the Black Sea. On 8 October 1856, the Second Opium War between several western powers and China begins with the Arrow Incident on the Pearl River. Second War of Italian Independence (1859), also known as Franco-Austrian War, or Austro-Sardinian War. The Indian Mutiny: revolt against British colonial rule in India Bleeding Kansas (1854–59): battles erupt in Kansas Territory between proslavery and "Free-State" settlers, directly precipitating the American Civil War. Reform War (1857-61) in Mexico Taiping Rebellion (1851–64) in Qing China. (Southeastern China) Nian Rebellion (1853–68) in Qing China.
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